Pengaruh Radiasi Sinar Gamma dan Asam Fusarat untuk Meningkatkan Ketahanan Abaka (Musa textilis Nee) terhadap Fasariurn oxysporum

Fitri Damayanti, Suharsono Suharsono, Ika Mariska
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Effect of gamma radiation and fusaric acid for resistance to wild Fusarium disease on
abaca plant (Mum textillis Nee). The problem in abaca production is wilt disease infection
caused by Fusarium oxysporzim. The resistant variety against the pathogen has not been
available yet. The disease resistance character of the species might be improved through
somaclonal variation and in vitro selection. Different pure toxin of fusaric acid concentration
(0, 15,30,45,60, and 75 mg/l) was used as component selection to get new hope numbers of
resistant abaca to wilt Fusarium disease through in vitro selection. Concentration of 45 mgll
fusaric acid is lethal for abaca, so we used this concentration as dose of selection to select
shoots from irradiated calli. Gamma irradiation was used as mutagent to increase somaclonal
variation on abaca. Six levels of gamma-ray radiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 Krad) were applied
to embriogenic calli. Increasing dose of radiation decreased the viability of calli. LDso was
found between 1-1.5 Krad of radiation dose. In vitro selection was carried out in two stages.
The concentration of selection of hsaric acid in stage I1 was increased one level to the
concentration in stage 1. Stage I selection of shoots from irradiated calli on medium
containing pure toxin 45 mg/l fusaric acid, showed that the survival capacity decreasing with
the increasing doses of gamma irradiation. In stage 11, shoots from irradiated calli (at 0.5 and
1 Krad) could survive on medium containing 60 mg/l fusaric acid. In medium selection
containing 50% filtrate F. oxysporum, fusaric acid resistant shoots were also filtrate resistant.
There was a correlation between in vitro fusaric acid and filtrate of F. oxysporum resistant
plant and conidia suspension of F. oxysporum resistkt plant in the greenhouse.
Keywords: Gamma radiation, in vitro selection, fusaric acid, Musa textilis, Fusarium

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