AN INTRODUCTION TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF FICUS

E. J. H. CORNER
| Abstract views: 1677 | PDF views: 722

Abstract

Ficus displays many problems fundamental to the distribution of tropical plants. As a natural g-enus, one of the most derived of its family, it shows that these problems refer not to the origin of the genus or of its major groups, but to the subsequent course of sectional evolution. Detailed morphological revision must, therefore, precede phytogeography. The facts, here epitomised, are based on monographic revision of the species of Asia and Australasia, and have not been called from other writings. Seed-dispersal in Ficus must be accompanied by dispersal of the pollinating wasp. It seems true, as Beccari pointed out, that the large banyans have an advantage in this respect over small trees impeded by the dense forest.Two subgenera, Pharmaeosycea and Urostigma, suggest a southern migration, but the third subgenus Ficus suggests a northern origin and dispersal. Pharmaeosycea, hitherto regarded as American, has 46 species in Asia and Australasia, and it comprises most of the fig-flora of New Caledonia (26 species in all, 20 endemic species of Pharmaeosycea). Ficus prolixa (Polynesia) seems related to sect. Americana of Urostigma. The F. elastica group (Queensland, Papua, Solomon Islands) seems related to the African sect. Bibracteata of Urostigma. The F, benghalensis group parallels the distribution of the Dipterocarpaceae, but does not occur in Africa.

Keywords

DISTRIBUTION OF FICUS

Full Text:

PDF

References

BECCARI, O. 1904. Wanderings in the great Forest of Borneo. London.

CORNER, E. J. H. 1954. The Durian-Theory Extended. III. Phytomorph. 4: 263-274.

GOOD, R. 1950. Madagascar and New Caledonia. Blumea 6: 470-479.

—————, 1957. Some problems of Southern Floras. Austral. Tourn. Sci. 20:41-43.

GUPPY, H. B. 1906. Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific, II. London.

KALKMAN, C. 1955. A Plant-Geographical Analysis of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Act. bot. Gard. Calcutta 1.

KING, G. 1888. The Species of Ficus of the Indo-Malayan and Chinese Countries. Ann. roy. bot. Gard. Calcutta 1.

MERRILL, E. D. 1926. An Enumeration of the Philippine Flowereing Plants 4: 127-154.

MIQUEL, F. A. G. 1847. Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 6: 585

—————, 1848. Ibid. 7:454.

PEMBERTON, C. E. 1921. The Fig– Wasp of the Moreton Bay Fig. Hawaii Plant. Rec. 24: 297-319.

RIDLEY, H. N. 1930. The Dispersal of Plants throughout the World. London.

SATA, N. 1944. A Monographic Study of the Genus Ficus. Contrib. hort. Inst. Taihoku Univ. n. 32.

SOLEM, A. 1958. Biogeography of the New Hebrides. Nature 181: 1253-1255.

STEENIS, C. G. G. J. van, 1934. On the Origin of the Malaysian Mountain Flora, I. Bull. Jard. bot. Buit., ser. 3, 13: 135-262.

————, 1936. Id., III: ibid. 14: 56-72.

SUMMERHAYES, V. S. 1941. Tourn. Arn. Arb. 22:97.

SYMINGTON, C. F. 1944. Malayan Forest Records n. 16. Kuala Lumpur.

WILLIAMS, F. X. 1928. Studies in Tropical Wasps. Bull. Hawaii Sug. Ass. ent. ser. 19: 3-29.

WILLIS, J. C. 1949. Birth and Spread of Plants. Geneva.

Copyright (c) 2015 Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.