Khaleeda Ridzuan, Meekiong Kalu
| Abstract views: 321 | PDF views: 224


Traditionally, morphological parameters have been used for several taxonomic and ecological identifications. The morphological characteristics alone would be difficult to distinguish the evidence for species identification. Hence, a study of leaf anatomy was conducted to compare the structural characteristics which focused on the epidermal cells, stomata, and trichomes by using a Compound Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Four selected species of Hoya from various localities within western of Sarawak were studied: H. caudata, H. coronaria, H. omlorii, and H. verticillata. The results showed stomatal types of Hoya species have stephanocytic stomata, except for two species which have slightly significant differences: H. coronaria has anomocytic stomata and H. omlorii has paracytic stomata. Meanwhile, in terms of the stomatal presence, all species possessed hypostomatic stomata, only H. verticillata has amphistomatic stomata which stomata presence on both sides of the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Highest stomatal density was recorded in H. omlorii whereas the lowest were recorded in H. coronaria. Stomatal index were calculated and H. caudata has the highest with 12.80% and H. coronaria has the lowest value which is 6.28%. All four species were completely absence of trichomes except for H. coronaria which has simple unicellular non-glandular trichomes. The result indicates that the anatomical characteristics provide additional information and could be a great assist in the distinction within Hoya species.


Amphistomatic, Borneo, epiphyte, systematic, wax plant.

Full Text:



ADEGBITE, A. E. 2008. Leaf anatomical studies in some species of the tribe Cichorieace (Asteraceae) in Nigeria. Compositae Newsletter 46: 49–58.

AWORINDE, D. O., OGUNDAIRO, B. O., OSUNTOYINBO, K. F. & OLANLOYE, O. A. 2012. Foliar epidermal characters of some

Sterculiaceae species in Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 5: 48–56.

BARANOVA, M. A. 1987. Historical development of the present classification of morphological types of stomates. Botanical Review 53(1): 53–79.

CABACTULAN, D. D., RODDA, M. & PIMENTEL, R. 2017. Hoya of the Philippines part I. Hoya migueldavidii (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Northern Mindanao, Philippines. PhytoKeys 80: 105–112.

CHAVES, M. M., COSTA, J. M., ZARROUK, O., PINHEIRO, C., LOPES, C. M. & PEREIRA, J. S. 2016. Controlling stomatal aperture in semi-arid regions –The dilemma of saving

water or being cool?. Plant Science 251: 54–64.

COWAN, I. R., FARQUHAR, G. D. & JENNINGS, D. H. 1977. Integration of Activity in The Higher Plant. Stomatal Function in Relation to Leaf Metabolism and Environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp 471–505.

CUTLER, D. F. 1978. Applied Plant Taxonomy. Longman, London and New York.

CUTLER, D. F., BOTHA, T. & STEVENSON, D. W. 2008. Plant Anatomy: An Applied Approach. Blackwell Publishing Limited,


EFENDI, M. 2019. Tipe stomata tiga puluh dua jenis Begonia alam Indonesia koleksi Kebun Raya Cibodas. Berita Biologi 18(2): 175–183.

FONTENELLE, G. B., COSTA, C. G. & MACHADO, R. D. 1994. Foliar anatomy and micromorphology of eleven species of Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 115: 111–133.

GABR, D. G., KHAFAGI, A. A. F., MOHAMED, A.H. & MOHAMED, F. S. 2015. The significance of leaf morphological characters in the identification of some species of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae. Journal of American Science 11: 61–70.

GHAHREMAN, A., KHATAMSAZ, M. & GANJKARIMI, M. 1999. Leaf epidermal studies in the genus Hyoscyamus L. (Solanaceae)

in Iran. The Iranian Botany 8(1): 81–90.

HAKIM, A. R., DORLY & RAHAYU, S. 2013. Keragaman dan analisis kekerabatan Hoya spp. bertipe daun non sukulen berdasarkan karakter anatomi daun. Buletin Kebun Raya 16(1): 1–

HETHERINGTON, A. M. & WOODWARD, F. I. 2003. The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change. Nature 424: 901–908.

ICHIE, T., INOUE, Y., TAKAHASHI, N., KAMIYA, K. & KENZO, T. 2016. Ecological distribution of leaf stomata and trichomes among tree species in a Malaysian lowland tropical rain forest. Journal of Plant Research 129: 625–635.

JAMES, S. A. & BELL, D. T. 2000. Influence of light availability on leaf structure and growth of two Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus provenances. Tree Physiology 20(15): 1007–1018.

JORDAN, G. J., CARPENTER, R. J., KOUTOULIS, A., PRICE, A. & BRODRIBB, T. J. 2015. Environmental adaptation in stomatal size independent of the effect of genome size. New Phytologist 205: 608–617.

JUDD, W. S., CAMPBELL, C. S., KELLOG, E. A., STEVENS, P. F., & DONOGHUE, M. J. 2008. Plant Systematics: A phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer Associates Publishers, Sunderland.

LAMB, A., GAVRUS, A., EMOI, B. & GOKUSING, L. 2014. The hoyas of Sabah, a commentary with seven new species and a new subspecies. Sandakania 19: 1–89.

LAMB, A. & RODDA, M. 2016. A Guide to Hoyas of Borneo. Natural History Publications Borneo, Kota Kinabalu.

MBAGWU, F. N., NWACHUKWU, C. U. & OKORO, O. O. 2007. Comparative leaf epidermal studies on Solanum macrocarpon and Solanum nigrum. Nature and Science 5(3): 1–4.

MISKIN, E. K., RASMUSSON, D. C. & MOSS, D. N. 1972. Inheritance and physiological effects of stomatal frequency in barley. Crop Science 12: 780–783.

MORAES, T. M. D. S., BARROS, C. F., NETO, S. J. D. S., GOMES, V. M. & DA CUNHA, M. 2009. Leaf blade anatomy and ultrastructure of six Simira species (Rubiaceae) from the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil. Biocell 33(3): 155–165.

MORAES, T. M. S., RABELO, G. R., ALEXANDRINO, C. R., SILVA NETO, S. J. D. & DACUNHA, M. 2011. Comparative leaf anatomy and micromorphology of Psychotria species (Rubiaceae) from the Atlantic Rainforest. Acta Botanica Brasilica 25(1): 178–190.

MOTT, K. A., GIBSON, A. C. & O'LEARY, J. W. 1982. The adaptive significance of amphistomatic leaves. Plant, Cell & Environment 5(6): 455–460.

MULYANI SRI, E. S. 2006. Anatomi Tumbuhan. Kanisius, Yogyakarta. 325 pp.

NISA, S. U., SHAH, S.A., MUMTAZ, A. S., & SULTAN, A. 2019. Stomatal novelties in Vincetoxicum arnottianum (Asclepiadeae: Asclepiadoideae: Apocynaceae). Flora 260: Art. 151464.

PARVEEN, R., ABID, R. & FATIMA, R. 2007. Stomatal types of some dicots within flora of Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany39(4): 1017–1023.

PATTERSON, P. M. 1964. Problems presented by bryophytic xerophytism. The Bryologist 67: 390–396.

PROCTOR, M. C. F. 1981. Physiological Ecology of Bryophytes. Advances in Bryology I: 79–166.

RAHAYU, S. 2011. Hoya as medicinal plants. Warta Kebun Raya 11(1): 15–21.

RAHAYU, S., 2021. Konservasi Biodiversitas dan Pemanfaatan Berkelanjutan Hoya Indonesia. LIPI Press, Jakarta.

RAO, R. S. & RAMAYYA, N. 1981. Distribution of stomata and relation to plant habit in the order Malvales. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 4: 149–156.

RODDA, M. 2015. Two new species of Hoya R.Br. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from Borneo. PhytoKeys 53: 83–93.

RODDA, M. & RAHAYU, S. 2022. Nine new species and one new subspecies of Hoya (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from Borneo.

Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 74: 101–129.

RODDA, M. & SIMONSSON, N. 2011. Hoya devogelii (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Sarawak, Borneo. Webbia 66(1): 33–38.

ROMPAS, Y., RAMPE, H. L., & RUMONDOR, M. J. 2011. Struktur sel epidermis dan stomata daun beberapa tumbuhan Suku Orchidaceae. Jurnal Bioslogos 1(1): 14–19.

SALAS, D. S., SINAMBAN, E., B. & BUENAVISTA, D. 2018. Comparative morphoanatomical studies of Hoya incrassata and Hoya soligamiana (Apocynaceae) from Mount Hamiguitan, Philippines. Ruhuna Journal of Science 9: 1–12.

SALASIAH, M. & MEEKIONG, K. 2018. Preliminary anatomical study on leaf surfaces of Bornean Zingiberaceae (Tribe Alpineae) from North East Sarawak. Malaysian Applied Biology 47(5): 289–293.

SALISBURY, E. J. 1927. On the causes and ecological significance of stomatal frequency with species reference to the woodland flora. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Science 216: 1–65.

SERNA, L., TORRES-CONTRERAS, J., & FENOLL, C. 2002. Clonal analysis of stomatal development and patterning in Arabidopsis leaves. Developmental Biology 241: 24–33.

SILALAHI, M., WALUJO, E. B., SUPRIATNA, J. & MANGUNWARDOYO, W. 2015. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 175: 432–443.

STACE, C. A. 1965. Cuticular studies as an aid in plant taxonomy. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum 4: 1–78.

WILLMER, C. M. 1983. Stomata. Longman Group Limited, London.

Copyright (c) 2023 Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.